Some Ways Metaphors Appear in Sentences
Metaphors appear in speech or text via normal sentence structure, the way 'tax relief' does, springing from the verbs, adjectives, adverbs or prepositions combined with other words. For example, in regard to climate change, if you say 'What's up with the Earth?' you are suggesting that the news is good. As Lakoff and Johnson have shown in Metaphors We Live By, 'up' is usually associated in the U.S. with good stuff. If you say 'What's going on with the Earth?' it could be something bad, as 'going on' is usually felt to be more sinister than 'up.' See also: Metaphor: A Definition, and Visual Metaphor.